Jesuit Social Services looks inside ‘The Man Box’

According to a new study from Jesuit Social Services' The Men's Project, two thirds of young men say that since they were a boy they have been told a ‘real man’ behaves in a certain way, and have felt that there was pressure to adhere to these behaviours.

A new study from Jesuit Social Services’ The Men’s Project has shed a new light on the social pressures that young Australian men experience to be a ‘real man’, and the impact this can have on their wellbeing, behaviours and the safety of our wider community.

The comprehensive study, released on 16 October, focused on the attitudes to manhood and the behaviours of young Australian men aged 18 to 30.


This study was modelled on research in the United States, United Kingdom and Mexico that was released by Promundo in 2017.

It involved an online survey of a representative sample of 1,000 young men from across the country, as well as focus group discussions with two groups of young men. The study utilises an internationally developed and applied analytical tool, known as the Man Box, to unpack the set of beliefs within and across society that place pressure on men to act in a certain way.

Participants in the online survey were asked their views on different topics about how a man should behave which were categorised under seven pillars of the Man Box:

  1. Self-sufficiency
  2. Acting tough
  3. Physical attractiveness
  4. Rigid gender roles
  5. Relationships
  6. Risk taking
  7. Violence and bystander behaviour

We found that social pressures around what it means to be a ‘real man’ are well and alive in Australia.

Two thirds of young men said that since they were a boy they had been told a ‘real man’ behaves in a certain way, and felt that there was pressure to adhere to these behaviours.

Key messages perceived my young men include

  • That a guy who doesn’t fight back when others push him around is weak – 60 per cent of those surveyed felt that society gave them this message;
  • That a ‘real man’ would never say no to sex – 56 per cent of young men surveyed felt that society told them this; and
  • That a ‘real man’ should have as many sexual partners as he can – 47 per cent of young men felt that this was a message they received.

Interestingly, despite these messages being conveyed to young men, the research also found that the uptake of the Man Box rules is not consistent across all young men, with some believing in and adhering to the ‘rules’ more than others.

The study grouped these young men into two distinct groups – those who adhere strongly to the seven pillars of masculinity in the Man Box, and those who don’t; or those inside the Man Box and those outside the Man Box.

Consistent with Man Box studies that have been undertaken in the United Kingdom, Mexico and the United States, the Australian research found that men inside the Man Box perform particularly poorly in relation to:

  • mental health and wellbeing
  • suicide ideation
  • risk-taking behaviours (drinking/driving)
  • traffic accidents
  • being the victim or perpetrator of violence
  • being the perpetrator of sexual harassment of women

For example, 54 per cent of young Australian men felt they were under pressure to solve their own personal problems without asking for help.

In addition, among those inside the Man Box 44 per cent felt that they had a right to know where their girlfriend or wife was at all times, compared to a smaller, but still concerning minority of 37 per cent of those outside the box.

The pressures relating to being a man are everywhere in society and are reinforced and influenced by young men’s closest relationships – families, partners and friends.

Across all levels of society there must be a focus on building awareness of the Man Box norms and their harmful impacts. Positive alternatives should be promoted.

‘These findings show the immense costs of pressuring young men into living up to rigid ideas of what it means to be a real man’, said Jesuit Social Services CEO Julie Edwards.

‘We need action across the community and in the form of new programs which will deliver benefits to society, as well as to the young men themselves in terms of health, wellbeing and safety.’

Speaking at the launch of the report, Sydney Swans AFL Captain and The Men’s Project Ambassador Josh Kennedy said the report demonstrates the need to start conversations particularly in places like sporting clubs, where young men can feel relaxed enough to open up about these topics.

‘We want young men to be free from harmful social pressures and we need to support them by focusing on building resilience and promoting respect’, he said.

Explore the Man Box in more detail and download the full report here.